Grammar 101: The greengrocer’s apostrophe
What is the greencgrocer’s apostrophe?
The ‘greengrocer’s apostrophe’ is what grammar snobs call an apostrophe that’s in the wrong place. The poor greengrocer got lumped with this name because greengrocers used to write the prices of their produce on hand-written signs…and they sometimes used apostrophes that weren’t neccessary.
Grammar snobs tend to think an apostrophe in the wrong place is an indication the person is ignorant or uneducated. They want to take a marker to the signs to correct them for the good of civil society. I’m a bit more relaxed about it. I think it’s a reminder that everyone has their own set of skills. Just because I know something, it doesn’t mean that everyone else has to know it too. Greengrocers know lots more about fruit and veg than I do, so I don’t actually mind if they occasionally put an apostrophe in the wrong spot when they tell me how much that juicy pineapple will cost me.
Why do apostrophes matter?
Apostrophes do matter when it comes to business or professional writing, where the writing itself, or the ideas it contains, is important. Knowing when to use apostrophes can help with understanding, so if you write for work, it’s a good idea to learn how to use them.
When do you use apostrophes?
Apostrophes are used to indicate:
- shortened forms
- unusual plurals.
How apostrophes show possession
So, let’s start at the beginning. Apostrophes are a way to indicate possession, that is, what belongs to whom. For example:
- ‘He was sitting in Peter’s chair’
is a way of saying:
- ‘He was sitting in the chair that belongs to Peter.’
Not only does the apostrophe in “Peter’s” indicate possession, it makes the sentence simpler.
How apostrophes show shortened forms
Apostrophes also indicate contractions and omissions, that is, where words and letters have been left out to make a shortened form. For example:
- It’s my turn to choose the movie
This is a contraction of :
- ‘It is my turn to choose the movie.
Similarly, if you were to say:
- Let’s eat pasta for dinner
This would be a contraction of:
- Let us eat pasta for dinner.
Another example is:
- ‘Tis a lovely day!
which is a slightly old-fashioned, if poetic, way of saying:
- It is a lovely day!
There are many other examples of contractions and omissions, but the most common include: don’t (do not), can’t (cannot), won’t (will not), shouldn’t (should not), wouldn’t (would not), would’ve (would have), haven’t (have not), and should’ve (should have).
How apostrophes show unusual plurals
One thing to remember in all of this is that an apostrophe is almost never used to indicate a plural. Which brings us back to the greengrocer’s apostrophe again.
It’s never correct to write:
- Banana’s $4.99 / k
What should really be written is:
- Bananas $4.99 / k
The only time it is acceptable to use an apostrophe to indicate a plural is in unusual plurals that are also in lower case. For example:
- Mind your p’s and q’s
- Remember to dot your i’s and cross your t’s.
Getting this right is not a matter of being pedantic, it’s about clarity. When I see “Banana’s $4.99 / k”, I immediately wonder what belongs to the bananas.
Getting apostrophes right in business writing
At the fruit shop, getting apostrophes right isn’t going to be an issue, but in business, it could have lasting impacts. Anything that takes your readers away from the message you are trying to convey is a bad thing. And simple errors like these can make you look unprofessional. Business is hard enough without simple things like this getting in the way.
If you’re confused, print out the above and put it in a prominent place. Or you can bookmark my handy cheat sheet on when to use apostrophes to show possession. It’s better to be questioned about why your memory is poor than ridiculed because your web copy is full of errors.
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